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WATCH RELATED VIDEO: 009 Sound System \

Lucasfilm THX Sound System -- Wings (1983)


Flow around the front pillar of an automobile is typical of a flow field with separated and reattached flow by a vortex system. It is known that the vortex system causes the greatest aerodynamic sound around a vehicle.

The objective of the present study is to clarify the relationship between vortical structures and aerodynamic sound by the vortex system generated around the front pillar. The vortex system consists of the longitudinal and the transverse system. The characteristics of the longitudinal vortex system were investigated in comparison with the transverse one. Two vortex systems were reproduced by three-dimensional delta wings. The flow visualization experiment and the computational fluid dynamics CFD captured well the characteristics of the flow structure of the two vortex systems.

These results showed that the longitudinal with the rotating axis along mean flow direction had cone-shaped configuration whereas the transverse with the rotating axis vertical to mean flow direction had elliptic one. Increasing the tip angles of the wings from 40 to degrees, there first exists the longitudinal vortex system less than degrees, with the transition region ranging from to degrees, and finally over degrees the transverse appears.

The characteristics of aerodynamic sound radiated from the two vortex systems were investigated in low Mach numbers, high Reynolds number turbulent flows in the lownoise wind tunnel. As a result, it was found that the aerodynamic sound radiated from both the longitudinal and the transverse vortex system was proportional to the fifth from sixth power of mean flow velocity, and that the longitudinal vortex generated the aerodynamic sound larger than the transverse.

The sound induced by turbulence in an unbounded fluid is generally called aerodynamic sound. With respect to aerodynamic sound, Lighthill [1] , Curle [2] and Howe [3] [4] have made their theoretical contributions to clarifying the relationship between turbulent flow and sound. Lighthill [1] transformed the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations to form an exact, inhomogeneous wave equation whose source terms are important only within the turbulent region. These theories have emphasized that unsteady motions of the vortex play a crucial role in the generation of aerodynamic sound.

Regarding the vortex, emphasis has been placed especially on longitudinal vortex which rotates about the axis whose direction coincides with the flow direction. In the automobile industry the reduction of aerodynamic noise becomes more and more important for the comfortable vehicle since noises caused by engine, power train, tires, and other noise sources have been steadily reduced in recent years.

It is well known that the front pillar of an automobile is regarded as one of the most dominant area in generating aerodynamic noise due to strong longitudinal vortices. Separated flows behind the front pillar generate the longitudinal vortices. Based on the theories as mentioned above, many researchers have so far tried to reveal the generation mechanism of aerodynamic sound. Recently Nouzawa, Li and Nakamura [6] have studied the mechanism of aerodynamic noise generated from front pillar and door mirror.

Hamamoto, Okutsu and Yanagimoto [7] have investigated the effect of the external aerodynamic noise sources onto the interior noise around the front pillar where longitudinal vortices exist.

Numerical approaches have also been conducted with delta wings and actual vehicles Haruna, Hashiguchi, Kamimoto and Kuwahara [8] , Takeda and Ogawa [9] , Ogawa and Li [10]. In addition to the aerodynamic engineering field, longitudinal vortex also has been focused in the heat transfer engineering field.

Jacobi and Shah [11] reviewed enhancement of heat transfer through the use of longitudinal vortices. Recently Iwasaki, Hara and Honda [12] used longitudinal vortices for EGR exhaust gas recirculation system to cool down the temperature of exhaust gas from the engine. There have been so many studies to reveal the generation mechanism of aerodynamic noise produced by longitudinal vortex. However, it has not yet been clarified that how the longitudinal vortex system has been generated and how this system produces the aerodynamic noise.

The final objective of our study, therefore, is to simplify this specific aerodynamic noise problem to obtain a thorough understanding of how the longitudinal vortex is produced, and how the noise can be estimated quantitatively.

Ogawa and Takeda [15] have so far been investigating mechanism of generation and collapse of a longitudinal vortex system induced around the leading edge of a delta wing. As a second step, the present paper aims to clarify the difference between the longitudinal vortex system and the transverse vortex system in terms of their configurations, the distribution of pressure coefficients on the surface of the delta wings, the magnitude and the components of vorticity, and the characteristics of aerodynamic sound radiated from the longitudinal and the transverse vortex system.

Figure 1 shows one of the delta wings employed for reproduction of the longitudinal and the transverse vortex system.

The wing model has three dimensions with mm long, mm wide and 3 mm thick. The models have 6 tip angles of 40, 90, , , , and degrees as shown in Figure 2. The models with 15 degrees as attack of angles were immersed in the running water channel shown in Figure 3. The uniform velocity of water flow is 0. Figure 4 depicts the longitudinal vortices and transverse vortices visualized by the hydrogen bubble method in the running water channel.

The separated flows around the leading edge were rotating. Red lines indicate. Figure 1. Three dimensional delta wing used. Figure 2. Six delta wings employed for flow visualization and their characteristic sizes are almost the same as that shown in Figure 1.

Figure 3. Running water channel unit: mm. Figure 4. The longitudinal vortex system and the transverse system visualized by the hydrogen bubble method. Chain line schematically shows rotating axes of the each vortex system.

Two wings with the tip angles of 40 and 90 degrees show the longitudinal vortex system whose rotating axis is located in the flow direction has cone-shaped configurations. However, with the increase of tip angles, the cone-shaped configurations began to collapse around degrees and over degrees the vortex system shifted to the transverse vortex system whose shapes are no longer cone-shaped but elliptic with rotating axes vertical to the mean flow direction.

This visualization method was able to clearly capture the change of vortex system from the longitudinal to the transverse vortex system. Although the spatial scale of the longitudinal vortex system is smaller than the transverse one, the rotating speeds of hydrogen bubbles in the longitudinal qualitatively seems to be faster than those in the transverse.

As a next step, CFD will be employed to analytically investigate the structure of the longitudinal vortex. In the simulation, numerical delta wing model has six tip angles of 40, 90, , , , and degrees just as in flow visualization experiment. This approach is valid when the maximum Mach number in the domain is less than 0. Eddy viscosity models use the concept of a turbulent viscosity to model the Reynolds stress tensor as a function of mean flow quantities.

The shear stress transport SST formulation combines the best of two worlds. In the steady state analysis, the maximum step number is This implies that the flow is turbulent and Mach number is 0. Figure 5 shows the wing model in numerical wind tunnel. The models employed in the simulation have the tip angles of 40, 90, , , , and degrees with three dimensions as shown in Figure 1. The characteristics of the vorticity in the two vortex systems were investigated at three sections, A, B, and C.

The wind scale was determined so that the uniform. Figure 5. The delta wing model in the numerical wind tunnel. The attack of angles for all the models are 15 degrees the same as that used in the running water channel. Total number of mesh ranges from 7. Minimum mesh size is 0. In generating mesh, the prism layer meshing method was adopted. This meshing method was used to optimize the mesh size in the boundary layer as shown in Figure 6. The prism layer mesh model is used with a core volume mesh to generate orthogonal prismatic cells next to the surface of the delta wing.

This layer of cells is necessary to improve the accuracy of the flow solution. The prism layer mesh is defined in terms of its thickness, the number of cell layers, and the size distribution of the layers.

In this study the total thickness of prism layer is 3 mm with five cell layers and prism layer closest to the model surface is 0. To conduct the. Figure 6. Mesh condition around the delta wing surface.

Figure 7 a shows the streamlines of the longitudinal vortex system and the transverse one generated behind the leading edge of the each delta wing with the tip angles of 40, 90, , , , and degrees. In order to exactly grasp the streamlines which go through the region of the vortex systems, the streamlines was extracted so that total pressure coefficients Cp t could be less than 1. The configuration of the vortex still remains cone-shaped until degrees.

Around degrees the vortex system becomes unstable. Over degrees, the rotational radius of the vortex increases and the configuration of the vortex begins to shift from cone-shaped to elliptical. That is, the vortex generated behind the leading edge changed from the longitudinal vortex system to the transverse vortex system whose rotating axis is vertical to the mean flow direction. It follows, therefore, that the longitudinal vortex can remain until the tip angle of degrees, and going through the transient region around degrees, the longitudinal vortex has been changed to the transverse vortex over degrees.

Figure 7 b shows equi-contour lines of pressure coefficients. C p coefficients show how the pressure on the wing behaves, compared with the pressure in the uniform fluid flow. It, therefore, follows that if C p has negative value, the pressure on the wing surface is lower than that in the uniform flows. The characteristics of the longitudinal vortex are well reflected by pressure coefficients on the wing surface.

The fast flows close to the wing tip are rapidly separated, but the rotational radius is small. Since the centrifugal force has the property that it is proportional to the square of the velocity and is in inverse proportion to the rotational radius, this causes the tip of the longitudinal vortex to induce the largest negative pressure.

The pressures in the longitudinal vortex gradually tend to recover due to the diffusion of the vorticity and convection of flows. During the state of the longitudinal vortex system, the particles in the system will be accelerated until the velocities of the particles are faster than mean flow velocity. On the other hand, although the transverse vortex system is larger in spatial scale, the velocities of the particles are much slower than those of the particles in the longitudinal system.

The numerical results agree well with the experimental ones obtained by flow visualization with the hydrogen bubble method in the running water channel. Due to the slow velocity of the fluid particles, the transverse vortex system causes smaller negative pressure on the wing surface, compared with the longitudinal system. Although it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between the vorticity and the unsteady movement of the vortex systems in terms of aerodynamic sound generation, the characteristics of the longitudinal and the transverse vortex system were, as our first step, investigated to clarify the relationships between the typical vortex systems and the vorticity in detail.

The vorticity of the longitudinal and the transverse vortex system were calculated for tip angles of the wing model with 40, 90, , , , and degrees just as investigated in streamlines and C p distributions. The vorticity will be described in Equation 4 to Equation 8 with respect to. Figure 7.


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We use cookies and other tracking technologies to improve your browsing experience on our site, show personalized content and targeted ads, analyze site traffic, and understand where our audiences come from. To learn more or opt-out, read our Cookie Policy. Lately it seems that TVs have crossed the line from gadget to furniture. Turn it on, and the panels fan outward like wings and the TV glides upward into an optimized viewing position. Eliciting an emotional connection might be aiming a little high, but the delicate choreography of the Beovision Harmony does accomplish something rather impressive—it momentarily distracts us from the fact that a TV is still just a big black box that sits blank most of the time. Cookie banner We use cookies and other tracking technologies to improve your browsing experience on our site, show personalized content and targeted ads, analyze site traffic, and understand where our audiences come from. By choosing I Accept , you consent to our use of cookies and other tracking technologies.

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