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813 push pull amplifier

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Developed by Philips in for use in the British Mullard amplifier, t he EL84 pentode tube, or commonly known as 6BQ5 in North America, was intended for use as an inexpensive alternative to the larger audio tubes of the time, such as EL34, 6L6 , and KT66 power tubes. Other manufacturers followed with their versions, such as the N from General Electric Co. Some firms make a related tube called an E34L which is rated to require a higher grid bias voltage, but which may be interchangeable in some equipment.

Other closely related with similar specifications and characteristics are tubes from the Beam-Tetrode and Kinkless-Tetrode families. In many cases EL34 amplifier circuits will allow for 'rolling" the aforementioned tubes as substitutes for the EL It can be substituted for the EL34 but is very rare. At the time Philips had already developed and patented power pentode designs, which were rapidly replacing power triodes due to their greater efficiency.

MOV had licensed the design to because their engineers did not feel the kinkless tetrode could be successfully mass-produced. They later did finally introduce it themselves, as the KT This choice of denomination came about because the sobriquet "KT", stood for "kinkless tetrode". Earlier variants included the , the , the 6V6 and the 6BG6G , a modified Other close equivalents also include the A and the A.

The 6L6 became the most successful and most produced tube family in vacuum tube history. The tube was also produced in Russia under the designator 6P3S It was manufactured in the U. The KT88 fits a standard eight-pin octal socket and has similar pinout and applications as the 6L6 and EL Specifically designed for audio amplification, the KT88 has similar ratings to the American which was designed for use as a servo amplifier.

It is one of the largest tubes in its class, and can handle significantly higher plate voltages than similar tubes -- up to volts. Type PL was first introduced in and was a line output valve, or sweep tube as they were known in America. This tube type is of late manufacture and probably the last to be produced before transistors took over the role. Today we encounter this tube and its variants in audio amplifier power output stages.

Its Russian equivalent is the 6P45S. A near equivalent, and substitute, the newer EL variant with octal base no anode cap was specially designed for use as a power amp tube. The higher the number, the newer the tube, and the higher the anode power dissipation. Although today only a handful of amplifiers implement this tube in their power stages, a few renowned designers, like Tim de Paravicini, recognized its talents.

And for those lucky enough to have heard this tube in action, it is without a doubt one of the finest sounding tubes available. Tung-Sol KT claims a storied history that stretches back to September of when the company introduced the , an industrial version of the 6L6GA with a This rugged tube also found a home in the '59 Fender Bassman and servo amplifiers used in B bombers.

In , Tung-Sol raised the bar of high fidelity with the introduction of the 35W , which could deliver watts with a pair in push-pull configuration. The KT can in many cases replace a KT With a massive plate dissipation of 70 watts, the Tung-Sol KT was the most powerful octal beam tetrode ever produced until the introduction of the company of the KT A pair of KTs can allow an amplifier with a power output approaching watts to be built.

The Tung-Sol KT glass envelope is a special egg shaped balloon that was developed to improve thermal dissipation and maintain a superior vacuum for the best sound.

The fact that the glass envelope has no flat sides means the Tung-Sol KT has no problems with microphonics. The Tung-Sol KT has a plate dissipation of 85 watts!

A pair of these tubes in push-pull configuration can deliver power levels of or more watts. However, taking advantage of the higher current handling capacity of these tubes, a very unique and super powerful and stable amp can be designed using the Tung-Sol KT The main 3 characteristics of the 6C33C are very high transconductance, very high current capability and very low internal resistance.

This tube is also mechanically very robust as it was to be used in Russian military fighter aircraft. What strikes the listener first is that the tube expresses an absolutely luscious rendering of tonal color. More importantly, the 6C33C does this whilst avoiding the injection of an ultimately tiresome syrupy romanticism, a tonal tendency common to many SET tubes. The 6C33C also lacks a typical SET tonal characteristic — an overly warm and ripe midband that directs the musical focus to certain instruments.

Whilst this would not be mistaken for a solid-state dreadnought design, one would not expect this level of bass control and dynamic drive was being delivered by a pair of 6C33c's in 16W SE mode.

To contextualize the 2A3 tube and its DHT triode brethren, let us look at the historical perspective of its heritage. In , the 71A direct-heated power triode was introduced, followed by the 50 in , the 45 and PX4 in , the PX25 in , the 2A3 in , the A in , and the B in The 6B4G is an octal version of the 6A3 , itself the 6. The "power" race started in earnest with the 6L6 and KT66 pentode in , followed by the ubiquitous EL34 in , the EL84 in , the and KT88 in , and last in the series, the in and the in The 6L6 has been in continuous production since , a record unmatched by any other electronic device - we all owe the electric-guitar players a big thank you for keeping the tube factories open.

Seventy years later, vacuum tubes, and especially triodes, continue to be the lowest distortion amplifying elements ever made. In addition to low distortion in the absolute sense, the distortion spectra of triodes is favorable, with a rapid fall-off of the upper harmonics. This is less true for beam tetrodes, pentodes, or solid-state devices, which are intrinsically less linear and have higher-order distortion curves.

The 45 and the PX25 are less commonly implemented in tube amplifiers today, but are actually better sounding than their better known cousins, the 2A3 and the B. The 45 followed the 71A and the 50 in The PX25 was introduced a year later in The 45 has the same 2.

The PX25 power output, at 4. It was reorganized in as the Western Electric Company. It became Westrex Corporation in Litton Industries acquired part of Westrex in The B is a directly-heated power triode vacuum tube with a 4-pin base, and a 5V heater voltage specification introduced in by Western Electric to amplify telephone signals. It measures 6. In the s it started to be used increasingly by audiophiles in home audio equipment. The B has good linearity, low noise and good reliability; it is often used in single-ended triode SET audio amplifiers of about eight watts output.

A push-pull pair can output 20 watts. The type was first introduced by RCA in late , followed by the A in early This vacuum tube, also known by its US military identifier as the VT , had its origins as a transmitter tube and was preceded by the For use in audio applications, it is a power triode capable of a power output of 10 - 15 Watts in single ended class A2 configuration and in a three stages circuit using an interstage transformer in the driving stage.

Nobu Shishido was one of the first engineers who introduced designs around this tube. Interestingly, the first 5 Watts of the tube's operation is in Class A1, and from thereon upwards to 15W, the circuit will operate in Class A2.

The A served as the basis for its stablemate the B , and its modern day equivalents, the Russian Svetlana SV and SV are essentially the same tubes without the Anode Cap pinout configuration. The was developed by Western Electric from their experimental series G , with the first version A completed in late , then copied in late by Westinghouse, and marketed by them and by RCA. With a mu of A dull and pedestrian tube for dull everyday jobs.

If a radio engineer of the s lived to see what old s are selling for today, he would probably die laughing. Western Electric's versions started with the A; the B, C and D were just the same tube with different grades of filament. The E was notorious for its use in the WE 43A theater amplifier.

A pair of small nichrome-wire inductors were installed in the filament circuit, inside the actual tube, to help stabilize it at high frequencies. This makes old Es highly collectible. It also led to types. The last development was the , believed to have entered development by RCA in and not released until as the UV In an era when transmitting triodes were headed toward high-mu design and grounded-grid or Class B operation, the UV was an aberration: a watt power triode with a mu of 4.

Later, it was up-rated to watts. Ridiculously archaic and difficult to drive, by it was obsolete except for its continued use in older RCA ETA-series transmitters as the audio modulator final amp, in a Class A push-pull pair. Such transmitters were often pressed into service after World War II by small local broadcasters, many carrying "race" music and programming.

There were other manufacturer's designations for the , although it did not enjoy nearly as much popularity or variability as the or The worm turned in the s, and the last laugh is on the high-mu family. For although the A, B , Z and other high-mu types continue to be popular in RF applications, the large, crude has become nearly a religious object to neurotic audiophiles, especially in Asia.

Today Simply compiling a list of all the firms that made s in the past 70 years would be an impossible undertaking; s were astoundingly popular before , then nearly became museum pieces. Manufacture of later relatives, such as the and , also continues in China. Also driving the high end "true" watter type market is a similar tube from Russia : the Ulyanov GM Made since the s, Its basing is unique and its mu is about 7, yet in many respects it is amazingly similar to the The type is a variable high-mu grid power tube intended for Class B Audio Frequency [AF] modulation, but was first introduced in as an HF transmitting triode rated for use up to 30 MHz.

In the 's however, China-based manufacturers improved the tube, which was thereafter renamed the A. This version was modified to operated optimally as an AF amplifier, and as such has a better characteristics than the original American types in that It can be driven more easily, which considerably reduces THD. The is on one of the big 4 "true" watter big-tone power tubes. The A was initially designed for medium power oscillation, or class B or C amplifier applications.

The long grid and anode leads, plus high internal capacitance, limits this tube to MHz maximum frequency, which is just fine for audio amplification duties. Being medium mu, it is normally not suitable for grounded grid operation. The A is a large tube actually it is huge!


813 push-pull output 250W tube amp

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813 tube amplifier


This site is updated periodically. Current Update Sept 7, I've modified the "no C" phono preamp. Link is from the preamp section below. Previous Update July 31, This implements RIAA compensation using inductors and resistors only. There are no capacitors anywhere in the direct signal path. Link is from preamp section below. Previous Update Jan 15 I've added the report on the Matrix amp that was demo'ed at ETF

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813 push pull amplifier

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Schematics


QRZ Forums. KF6PYF, et al An interesting thread of info submitted so far A few additional comments regarding tube type amplifier operation at higher frequencies, below. Most tubes, and certainly those that found favor among amateur radio operators in the late 30's and forward after WWII and up to today, can be operated in the lower to mid VHF spectrum, but nearly all require derating DC power input from the maximum In particular, both the and the A need to be run at reduced plate voltage and plate current ratings DC power input for expected power output in grid driven RF amplifiers of Class AB-2, Class B and Class C operation above 30 mHz.

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BEZ Home. Policy Center. All BEZ made transformers are brand new. Separate layers of pure wood pulp insulating paper and multiple segments design, plus our advanced technique on insulation and moisture proof, BEZ made transformers have high quality of performance on amp sounds. Stainless steel transformer cases also provide an outstanding appearance.

This is the dual grounded grid linear amplifier that was built to mate up with the Octal Tribander. It is the identical physical size and shares the.

Valve audio amplifier technical specification

To get more information contact me at: webmaster audiodesignguide. After many years designing single ended amplifiers I have decided to start a series of test about the Push Pull amplifiers. These amplifiers are considered at a lower level than single ended but if you want a power enough to drive ESL loudspeakers and low distortion systems like Audiotechnology , Dynaudio , Scanspeak , Morel and Seas there is no other choice. The main problem of Push-pull amplifier is the not perfect distortion decay with the cancellation of even harmonics but if we keep the distortion level very low this consequence can be ignored and the sound will not be affected.

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RELATED VIDEO: James Millen 90881 811A Push Pull 20M Amplifier Update

An Amplifier by Paul Leclercq. This article concerns push-pull amplification and may, therefore, cause distress to certain sections of the readership. It has to be said: it's fascinating reading accounts of individuals designing and building valve amplifiers. I'm sure they do it properly. You know the sort of thing: days of calculus and other brain-torturing processes, followed by careful drawings etc. And jolly good too I say.

The first stage is a simple voltage amplifier which is connected as a triode using an ultra low noise pentode EF86, in the common cathode configuration.

These pages represents an ongoing process. Comments are always welcome and if you have a favorite amplifier you would like to share with us, please write to me at: amplifiers at gmail. If you happen to have some pictures of the amplifiers in this compendia, please do not hesitate to contact me. The pictures will be accredited in your name. It is impossible to get around Mr. Futterman in an analysis of the history of audio amplifiers.

Technically speaking, the ultra-linear configuration delivers the same power output as for pentode operation of the same tube under the same operating conditions and typically about twice the power output of triode operation of the same tube under the same operating conditions with the same applied DC voltages - but with substantially less harmonic distortion or intermodulation distortion see comparative performance graph below. The ultra-linear configuration also offers improved overload characteristics, resulting in more effective power output - ie what the listener actually hears at full power levels. Output impedance is similar to triodes, allowing minimal or zero negative loop feedback to be used.




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