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Transistor


A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. Transistors are one of the basic building blocks of modern electronics. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled output power can be higher than the controlling input power, a transistor can amplify a signal.

Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. Austro-Hungarian physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld proposed the concept of a field-effect transistor in , but it was not possible to actually construct a working device at that time. The three shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement.

Most transistors are made from very pure silicon , and some from germanium , but certain other semiconductor materials are sometimes used. A transistor may have only one kind of charge carrier, in a field-effect transistor, or may have two kinds of charge carriers in bipolar junction transistor devices. Compared with the vacuum tube , transistors are generally smaller and require less power to operate.

Certain vacuum tubes have advantages over transistors at very high operating frequencies or high operating voltages. Many types of transistors are made to standardized specifications by multiple manufacturers. The thermionic triode , a vacuum tube invented in , enabled amplified radio technology and long-distance telephony.

The triode, however, was a fragile device that consumed a substantial amount of power. In , physicist William Eccles discovered the crystal diode oscillator. Because the production of high-quality semiconductor materials was still decades away, Lilienfeld's solid-state amplifier ideas would not have found practical use in the s and s, even if such a device had been built. The term transistor was coined by John R.

Pierce as a contraction of the term transresistance. Having unearthed Lilienfeld's patents that went into obscurity years earlier, lawyers at Bell Labs advised against Shockley's proposal because the idea of a field-effect transistor that used an electric field as a "grid" was not new.

Instead, what Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley invented in was the first point-contact transistor. Shockley's research team initially attempted to build a field-effect transistor FET , by trying to modulate the conductivity of a semiconductor , but was unsuccessful, mainly due to problems with the surface states , the dangling bond , and the germanium and copper compound materials.

In the course of trying to understand the mysterious reasons behind their failure to build a working FET, this led them instead to invent the bipolar point-contact and junction transistors.

Using this knowledge, he began researching the phenomenon of "interference" in Realizing that Bell Labs' scientists had already invented the transistor before them, the company rushed to get its "transition" into production for amplified use in France's telephone network and filed his first transistor patent application on August 13, The first bipolar junction transistors were invented by Bell Labs' William Shockley, which applied for patent 2,, on June 26, Bell Labs had announced the discovery of this new "sandwich" transistor in a press release on July 4, The first high-frequency transistor was the surface-barrier germanium transistor developed by Philco in , capable of operating up to 60 MHz.

Indium electroplated into the depressions formed the collector and emitter. It was a near pocket-sized radio featuring 4 transistors and one germanium diode. The industrial design was outsourced to the Chicago firm of Painter, Teague and Petertil. It was initially released in one of six different colours: black, ivory, mandarin red, cloud grey, mahogany and olive green.

Other colours were to shortly follow. The first "production" all-transistor car radio was developed by Chrysler and Philco corporations and it was announced in the April 28, edition of the Wall Street Journal. Chrysler had made the all-transistor car radio, Mopar model HR, available as an option starting in fall for its new line of Chrysler and Imperial cars which first hit the dealership showroom floors on October 21, The Sony TR, released in , was the first mass-produced transistor radio, leading to the mass-market penetration of transistor radios.

The first working silicon transistor was developed at Bell Labs on January 26, , by Morris Tanenbaum. The first commercial silicon transistor was produced by Texas Instruments in This was the work of Gordon Teal , an expert in growing crystals of high purity, who had previously worked at Bell Labs.

Semiconductor companies initially focused on junction transistors in the early years of the semiconductor industry. However, the junction transistor was a relatively bulky device that was difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited it to several specialized applications. Field-effect transistors FETs were theorized as potential alternatives to junction transistors, but researchers could not get FETs to work properly, largely due to the troublesome surface state barrier that prevented the external electric field from penetrating the material.

In the s, Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla investigated the surface properties of silicon semiconductors at Bell Labs, where he proposed a new method of semiconductor device fabrication , coating a silicon wafer with an insulating layer of silicon oxide so that electricity could reliably penetrate to the conducting silicon below, overcoming the surface states that prevented electricity from reaching the semiconducting layer.

This is known as surface passivation , a method that became critical to the semiconductor industry as it later made possible the mass-production of silicon integrated circuits. Transistors are the key active components in practically all modern electronics.

Many thus consider the transistor to be one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century. The MOSFET metal—oxide—semiconductor field-effect transistor , also known as the MOS transistor, is by far the most widely used transistor, used in applications ranging from computers and electronics [48] to communications technology such as smartphones.

MOSFETs are the most numerously produced artificial objects ever with more than 13 sextillion manufactured by Although several companies each produce over a billion individually packaged known as discrete MOS transistors every year, [68] the vast majority of transistors are now produced in integrated circuits often shortened to IC , microchips or simply chips , along with diodes , resistors , capacitors and other electronic components , to produce complete electronic circuits.

A logic gate consists of up to about twenty transistors whereas an advanced microprocessor , as of , can use as many as 39 billion transistors MOSFETs. The transistor's low cost, flexibility, and reliability have made it a ubiquitous device.

Transistorized mechatronic circuits have replaced electromechanical devices in controlling appliances and machinery. It is often easier and cheaper to use a standard microcontroller and write a computer program to carry out a control function than to design an equivalent mechanical system to control that same function. A transistor can use a small signal applied between one pair of its terminals to control a much larger signal at another pair of terminals.

This property is called gain. It can produce a stronger output signal, a voltage or current, which is proportional to a weaker input signal and thus, it can act as an amplifier. Alternatively, the transistor can be used to turn current on or off in a circuit as an electrically controlled switch , where the amount of current is determined by other circuit elements. There are two types of transistors, which have slight differences in how they are used in a circuit.

A bipolar transistor has terminals labeled base , collector , and emitter. A small current at the base terminal that is, flowing between the base and the emitter can control or switch a much larger current between the collector and emitter terminals. For a field-effect transistor , the terminals are labeled gate , source , and drain , and a voltage at the gate can control a current between source and drain.

The image represents a typical bipolar transistor in a circuit. A charge will flow between emitter and collector terminals depending on the current in the base. Because internally the base and emitter connections behave like a semiconductor diode, a voltage drop develops between base and emitter while the base current exists.

The amount of this voltage depends on the material the transistor is made from and is referred to as V BE. Transistors are commonly used in digital circuits as electronic switches which can be either in an "on" or "off" state, both for high-power applications such as switched-mode power supplies and for low-power applications such as logic gates. Important parameters for this application include the current switched, the voltage handled, and the switching speed, characterized by the rise and fall times.

In a grounded-emitter transistor circuit, such as the light-switch circuit shown, as the base voltage rises, the emitter and collector currents rise exponentially.

The collector voltage drops because of reduced resistance from the collector to the emitter. If the voltage difference between the collector and emitter were zero or near zero , the collector current would be limited only by the load resistance light bulb and the supply voltage.

This is called saturation because the current is flowing from collector to emitter freely. When saturated, the switch is said to be on. Providing sufficient base drive current is a key problem in the use of bipolar transistors as switches. The transistor provides current gain, allowing a relatively large current in the collector to be switched by a much smaller current into the base terminal. The ratio of these currents varies depending on the type of transistor, and even for a particular type, varies depending on the collector current.

In the example light-switch circuit shown, the resistor is chosen to provide enough base current to ensure the transistor will be saturated. In a switching circuit, the idea is to simulate, as near as possible, the ideal switch having the properties of an open circuit when off, the short circuit when on, and an instantaneous transition between the two states.

Parameters are chosen such that the "off" output is limited to leakage currents too small to affect connected circuitry, the resistance of the transistor in the "on" state is too small to affect circuitry, and the transition between the two states is fast enough not to have a detrimental effect.

The common-emitter amplifier is designed so that a small change in voltage V in changes the small current through the base of the transistor whose current amplification combined with the properties of the circuit means that small swings in V in produce large changes in V out. Various configurations of single transistor amplifiers are possible, with some providing current gain, some voltage gain, and some both.

From mobile phones to televisions , vast numbers of products include amplifiers for sound reproduction , radio transmission , and signal processing.

The first discrete-transistor audio amplifiers barely supplied a few hundred milliwatts, but power and audio fidelity gradually increased as better transistors became available and amplifier architecture evolved. Modern transistor audio amplifiers of up to a few hundred watts are common and relatively inexpensive.

Before transistors were developed, vacuum electron tubes or in the UK "thermionic valves" or just "valves" were the main active components in electronic equipment. The key advantages that have allowed transistors to replace vacuum tubes in most applications are. Hence, a particular transistor may be described as silicon, surface-mount, BJT, NPN, low-power, high-frequency switch.

Convenient mnemonic to remember the type of transistor represented by a electrical symbol involves the direction of the arrow. On a p-n-p transistor symbol, the arrow " P oints i N P roudly". The field-effect transistor , sometimes called a unipolar transistor , uses either electrons in n-channel FET or holes in p-channel FET for conduction. The four terminals of the FET are named source , gate , drain , and body substrate.

On most FETs, the body is connected to the source inside the package, and this will be assumed for the following description. In a FET, the drain-to-source current flows via a conducting channel that connects the source region to the drain region. The conductivity is varied by the electric field that is produced when a voltage is applied between the gate and source terminals, hence the current flowing between the drain and source is controlled by the voltage applied between the gate and source.

A quadratic behavior is not observed in modern devices, for example, at the 65 nm technology node. For low noise at narrow bandwidth , the higher input resistance of the FET is advantageous. Functionally, this makes the n-channel JFET the solid-state equivalent of the vacuum tube triode which, similarly, forms a diode between its grid and cathode.

Also, both devices operate in the depletion-mode , they both have a high input impedance, and they both conduct current under the control of an input voltage. These, and the HEMTs high-electron-mobility transistors, or HFETs , in which a two-dimensional electron gas with very high carrier mobility is used for charge transport, are especially suitable for use at very high frequencies several GHz. FETs are further divided into depletion-mode and enhancement-mode types, depending on whether the channel is turned on or off with zero gate-to-source voltage.

For enhancement mode, the channel is off at zero bias, and a gate potential can "enhance" the conduction.


MSP3000 Amplifier

Back in Burmester already produced handmade audio systems and components. Today we continue this tradition as the last independent high-end manufacturer of this kind. Burmester audio systems and components are designed to meet the highest acoustic and visual expectations. We are only satisfied when the sound experience is perfect and the design is timeless. Occasionally, a chain of serendipitous moments cause you to make key decisions that lead you in a particular direction in life. In Dieter Burmester's case it all began with an imperfect tube amplifier.

The amplifier's inputs are protected against continuous overload of amplifier provides a preset gain of 10, but gains be tween 10 and.

Proportional amplifier type EV


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11 of the best British stereo amplifiers of all time

englisch amplifier

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Signal Amplifier


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Amplifier (English translation)

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Charley took advantage of the remaining daylight to couple up the battery and the amplifier to his wireless. He heard the sound of a mobile amplifier, and strained his ears toward it. I can't detect any heart action even with the amplifier. The battery would be forwarded as soon as it reached the Wireless Club and had been inspected, and the amplifier would go with it. The receiving transducers would feed from amplifiers to earphones.

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. Transistors are one of the basic building blocks of modern electronics. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals.




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