# Lecture notes differential amplifier tutorial

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**WATCH RELATED VIDEO: Unit 1 Lecture 13:Differential Amplifier-Common mode operation, half circuit concept \u0026 design**

## Op-amp Basics (part 1)

A virtual short-circuit or simply virtual short refers to a condition of a differential input amplifier such as an op-amp in which its noninverting and inverting inputs have almost the same voltage. This condition is called a virtual short-circuit because the differential inputs have the same voltage even though they are not connected together.

This condition is met when a negative-feedback circuit is formed using a differential amplifier with a high open-loop gain. When the input terminal on one side is grounded to GND as shown in the figure, it is sometimes called virtual ground. These concepts are helpful for gain calculation. You can conceptually understand a virtual short as follows. Typical differential amplifiers have a finite output voltage.

The output voltage of an op-amp is equal to its gain multiplied by a difference in voltage between the two inputs. The output voltage of a high-gain circuit becomes extremely large in the event of there being a large difference between the two input voltages.

When the output voltage is finite, there is a very little difference in voltage virtual short between the two inputs. Figure 1 shows a negative-feedback amplifier inverting amplifier using an op-amp. Suppose that it is the ideal op-amp.

Then, the following are true:. Because the input impedance is infinite, all of the current flowing through R 1 i1 flows through R 2. Using this concept of a virtual short, the closed loop gain of this circuit can be calculated easily. The following documents also contain related information: Application Notes Basics of Operational Amplifiers and Comparators FAQs What types of amplifier circuits can be configured using an op-amp? Why is feedback used in op-amps? What are open-loop and closed-loop gains of an op-amp?

Characteristics of op-amps What is the ideal op-amp? Product web page Operational Amplifiers and Comparators. What is the virtual short-circuit virtual ground of an op-amp? Figure 1 Noninverting amplifier. Then, the following are true: The open-loop gain A V is infinite. The input impedance is infinite.

The output impedance is zero. A new window will open.

## Announcements

An operational amplifier, abbreviated as op-amp, is basically a multi-stage, very high gain, direct-coupled, negative feedback amplifier that uses voltage shunt feedback to provide a stabilized voltage gain. The curve drawn between output voltage and input differential voltage, for an op-amp, keeping voltage gain A constant is known as voltage transfer curve. When the difference of the two inputs applied to the two terminals of a differential amplifier is amplified, the resultant gain is termed as differential gain. But when the two input terminals are connected to the same input source then the gain established by the differential amplifier is called the common mode gain.

## Operational Amplifier (op-amp) in Digital Electronics

So let's look at that third amplifier challenge problem -- design a non-inverting amplifier with a gain of exactly 1. Now, we could have done it with two inverting amplifiers, but there's a better way. So, if we make R2 zero, and R1 infinity, we'll have an amp with a gain of exactly 1. How can we do this? The circuit is surprisingly simple. Here, R2 is a plain wire, which has effectively zero resistance. We can think of R1 as an infinite resistor -- we don't have any connection to ground at all.

## Operational Amplifier

The short form of the operational amplifier is op-amp, which is one kind of solid-state IC. The first operational amplifier is designed by Fairchild Semiconductors in the year It is the basic building block of analog electronic circuits that accomplish different types of analog signal processing tasks. These ICs use exterior feedback to regulate their functions and these components are used as a multipurpose device in various electronic instruments.

## Operational amplifier

The aim of this course is to familiarize the student with the analysis and design of basic transistor Amplifier circuits and power supplies. Midband analysis of amplifier circuits using small - signal equivalent circuits to determine gain input impedance and output impedance. Basic emitter coupled differential amplifier circuit - Bisection theorem. General shape of frequency response of amplifiers - Definition of cutoff frequencies and bandwidth - Low frequency analysis of amplifiers to obtain lower cutoff frequency Hybrid —equivalent circuit of BJTs - High frequency analysis of BJT amplifiers to obtain upper cutoff frequency — Gain Bandwidth Product - High frequency equivalent circuit of FETs - High frequency analysis of FET amplifiers - Gain-bandwidth product of FETs - General expression for frequency response of multistage amplifiers - Calculation of overall upper and lower cutoff frequencies of multistage amplifiers - Amplifier rise time and sag and their relation to cutoff frequencies. Classification of amplifiers, Class A large signal amplifiers, second harmonic distortion, higher order harmonic distortion, transformer-coupled class A audio power amplifier — efficiency of Class A amplifiers.

## Linear Integrated Circuits - EC8453, EC6404

Views Downloads 17 File size 6MB. To introduce some special function ICs. Oscillator types and principle of operation- RC, Wien, and quadraturetype, waveform generators- triangular, sawtooth, square wave and VCO. Digital comparator circuits. Text Books: 1. Linear Integrated Circuits — D.

Guide to the study of. Read the Instructions to know how you can better use this work. Know how it is organized and which navigation tools are available. See how you can complement the study with the simulation of some of the circuits presented here.

A virtual short-circuit or simply virtual short refers to a condition of a differential input amplifier such as an op-amp in which its noninverting and inverting inputs have almost the same voltage. This condition is called a virtual short-circuit because the differential inputs have the same voltage even though they are not connected together. This condition is met when a negative-feedback circuit is formed using a differential amplifier with a high open-loop gain. When the input terminal on one side is grounded to GND as shown in the figure, it is sometimes called virtual ground.

We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you! Published by Percival Reed Modified over 6 years ago. A high input impedance differential amplifier.

An amplifier is a device that increases the strength of the input signal. It can be Voltage amplifiers, whose input is some voltage and output is also voltage but amplified. Current amplifier, whose input is some current and output is also current but amplified. Block diagram of an op-amp Transconductance amplifier , whose input is some voltage and output is the current.

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